It is virtually impossible for biologists and ecologists to predict the consequences of climate change with unbridled certainty (global temperature increases, risks of extinction, rising sea levels, increased instances of droughts and tropical storms). At best, climatological experts are capable of giving estimates at to what chain reactions and tipping points that happen in environments as a result of human activity. There are predictive uncertainties to take into account when trying to assess climate change’s influence on biodiversity. However, the causal link between climate change and biodiversity (loss) has been acknowledged by international experts.

Biodiversity loss has been measured and connected to a long list of separate causes Hunting, fishing, monoculture practice, and forest degradation or clearing in mass are all examples of human activity that bring about disruptions in natural habitats. Humans alter growing seasons on dry land, acidify oceans, and cause ice melting in the Arctic. Human industrial practices depend upon the natural world for its resources and therefore impact organisms that also depend on those resources. Ecological communities are a connected labyrinth of interactions had by organisms and abiotic factors in their environments. More often than not, communities of organisms are faced with diversity loss and extinctions (directly or indirectly) caused human industrial activity.

Observed Changes in Biodiversity

Land-use, one example of human modification of natural habitats, makes way for arable fields, pastures, and human-managed woods in place of forests or woodlands. Clearing trees affects species of forest-dwelling birds, and orangutans, chimpanzees and sloths. Urbanization threatens biodiversity by removing feral animals and degrading soil quality through specialized farming.

According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a governmental environmental organization, increased carbon dioxide levels result in more carbon being absorbed into the ocean and other bodies of water. Introducing abundances of carbon dioxide to ecosystems that house coral reefs slows the rate at which those coral reefs are able to calcify. Calcification is the process by which coral reef grow, and this process is stunted when bodies of water have their chemistry and pH changed.

Urbanization is also commonplace practice in sub-Saharan Africa, America and the Caribbean. The results of urbanization depend upon several factors, including the distributions of wildlife species across the targeted ecosystem and the type of human infrastructure which will be built. Urbanization involves clearing natural habitats and entire ecological communities to make place for human territories and infrastructure. Degradation and destruction of natural habitats threatens biodiversity by removing feral animals and degrading soil quality through specialized farming.

crops on wood chunk soil

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